三分飞艇

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终身教育发展保障机制研究:基于国际比较的视角

时间:2017-06-21 15:35 作者: 点击:次

三分飞艇ZUOZHEJIANJIE:ZHOUJUNHUA,NAN,GAODENGJIAOYUCHUBANSHEFUBIANSHEN(BEIJING100029)。

NEIRONGTIYAO:MEIGUO、OUZHOU、HANGUOHERIBENDENGGUOJIAHEDIQUZAIZHONGSHENJIAOYUFANGMIANQIBUJIAOZAO,YIJINGJIANGOULEXIANGDUICHENGSHUWANSHANDELITIHUAZHONGSHENJIAOYUKUANGJIATIXI。XIANGDUIERYAN,ZHONGGUOZHONGSHENJIAOYUQIBUJIAOWAN,SHANGCHUYUFAZHANJIEDUAN,DAZHONGDUIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDERENSHIBUGOUSHENKE。JIEJIANGUOWAIDEZHONGSHENJIAOYULIFAHUA、GUANLIFENJIHUA、SHISHIRENXINGHUADECHENGGONGJINGYAN,GUONEIZHONGSHENJIAOYUFAZHANXUYAOGUOJIAJINXINGZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEZHUANMENLIFA,TIGAOQUANMINZHONGSHENJIAOYUYISHI,CUJINQUYUXINGHEZUO,YAOZHUBUJIANLIQUYUXING、QUANGUOXING、GUOJIXINGDEXUEFENZHUANHUANTIXI。TONGSHI,GUONEIZHONGSHENJIAOYUXUYAOGUANZHURUOSHIQUNTI,KECHENGSHEZHIBUJUXIANYUXUELIJIAOYUHEZHIYEJINENGJIAOYU,YIDADAOQUANMINCANYU、QUANMIANTIGAODEMUDE。

GUAN JIAN CI:ZHONGSHENJIAOYU JIAOYULIFA XUEXIXINGSHEHUI QUANMIANJIAOYU

ZHONGTUFENLEIHAO:G40-058WENXIANBIAOZHIMA:AWENZHANGBIANHAO:1674-2311(2016)4-0067-07

YI、WENTIDETICHU

ZAOZAI17SHIJI,JIEKEJIAOYUJIAKUAMEINIUSIJIUDUI“ZHONGSHENJIAOYU”(lifelong education)ZUOCHUGUOJUYOUQIANZHANXINGDESHEXIANG,TICHULEQIJIXUEZHIDEJIAOYUZHIDU。DANSHIZHIDAO20SHIJI,ZHONGSHENJIAOYUDESIXIANGCAIKAISHIZAIQUANSHIJIECHUANBOKAILAIBINGFUZHUSHIJIAN。1929NIAN,YINGGUOXUEZHEYEKELI(B.A.Yeaxlee)ZAIQIZHUZUO《ZHONGSHENJIAOYU》ZHONGXIEDAO,“ZHIYOUCHENGNIANRENYEJIXUJIESHOUJIAOYU,CAIYOUKENENGSHIXIANCHUJIJIAOYUHEGAOJIJIAOYUDEXITONGHUA”[1],JINERTICHULE“ZHONGSHENJIAOYU”DEGAINIAN,CONGERKAIQILE20SHIJIJIAOYUJIEDUIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEYANJIUSHIJIANRECHAO。1965NIAN12YUE,FAGUOXUEZHEBAOLUO·LANGGELANG(Paul Lengrand)ZAILIANHEGUOJIAOKEWENZUZHIHUIYISHANGYI“ZHONGSHENJIAOYU”WEITIZUOXUESHUBAOGAO,SHIZHONGSHENJIAOYUYITIYINQILEGUOJIJIAOYUJIEDEGUANZHU。1970NIAN,LIANHEGUOJIAOKEWENZUZHIZAIQIGUANFANGBAOGAOZHONGTICHANGGEGUOYAOFAZHANZHONGSHENJIAOYU,CONGERJIJITUIDONGLEZHONGSHENJIAOYUZAISHIJIEGEGUODEFAZHAN。

MEIGUO、OUZHOU、HANGUOHERIBENDENGGUOJIAHEDIQUZAIZHONGSHENJIAOYUFANGMIANQIBUJIAOZAO,FAZHANXUNSU,QUDELEZHUMUDECHENGJI,YIJINGJIANGOULEXIANGDUICHENGSHUWANSHANDELITIHUAZHONGSHENJIAOYUKUANGJIATIXI,BINGLIFABAOZHANGLEZHONGSHENJIAOYUDESHUNLISHISHIHEFAZHAN。XIANGDUIERYAN,ZHONGGUODEZHONGSHENJIAOYUQIBUJIAOWAN,SHANGCHUYUFAZHANJIEDUAN,DAZHONGDUIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDERENSHIHAIBUGOUSHENKE。JINNIANLAI,SUIZHESHEHUIDEFAZHAN,ZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEBIYAOXINGHEZHONGYAOXINGRIYITUXIAN,2010NIANFABUDE《GUOJIAZHONGZHANGQIJIAOYUGAIGEHEFAZHANGUIHUAGANGYAO(2010-2020NIAN)》MINGQUETICHULEDAO2020NIANYAOJIBENGOUJIANWANCHENGZHONGSHENJIAOYUTIXIDEFAZHANMUBIAO,ZHANGXIANLEGUOJIADUIZHONGSHENJIAOYUFAZHANDEZHONGSHIYIJIDALITUIJINZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEJUEXIN。JIANYUCI,BENWENYIMEIGUO、XINXILAN、HANGUO、RIBENDENGGUOJIAWEILI,FENXIGUOWAIZHONGSHENJIAOYUFAZHANDETEDIAN,BINGSHULIGUONEIZHONGSHENJIAOYUFAZHANDELICHENGHEWENTI,JIEJIANGUOWAIJIAOYUFAZHANJINGYANWEIJINHOUGUONEIGOUJIANWANSHANDEZHONGSHENJIAOYUTIXITICHUSIKAOHEJIANYI。

ER、ZHONGSHENJIAOYUFAZHANBAOZHANGDEGUOJIJINGYAN

三分飞艇MEIGUO、OUZHOU、HANGUOHERIBENDENGGUOJIAHEDIQUZAIZHONGSHENJIAOYULINGYUYIJINGQUDELEZHANGZUDEFAZHAN,SUIRANGEGEGUOJIAZAIZHENGCEBAOZHANG、JIAOYUTIXIDENGFANGMIANGEYOUQIANQIU,DANSHIYIHONGGUANSHIYELAIKAN,TAMENZAIGUOJIALIFABAOZHANG、ZHONGSHENJIAOYUGUANLIHEJUTISHISHIZHONGJUYOUZHONGSHENJIAOYULIFAHUA、GUANLIFENJIHUA、SHISHIRENXINGHUADENGGONGXING。

三分飞艇(YI)WANBEIDEFALVBAOZHANGTIXI

YOULELIFABAOZHANG,ZHONGSHENJIAOYUDESHISHIJIUYOUFAKEYI,YOUGUIKEXUN,JIEJUEZHONGSHENJIAOYUFAZHANZHONGYUDAODEWENTIJIUYOULEYOULIDECANZHAO。QIJINWEIZHI,ZHONGSHENJIAOYULIFAXIANGDUICHENGSHUDEGUOJIAYOUMEIGUO、HANGUOHERIBENDENG。

三分飞艇TONGGUOJIAOYULIFAQUEDINGSHISHIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEZHENGCEYUYUANZE,WEIZHONGSHENJIAOYUTIGONGBIYAODEFALVBAOZHANG,CONGERGUIFANZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEJIANKANGFAZHAN,SHIMEIGUOZHONGSHENJIAOYUFAZHANZHONGTIXIANCHULAIDEZUIWEIXIANZHUDETEDIAN[2]。ZAOZAI1966NIAN,MEIGUOZAI《CHENGRENJIAOYUFA》ZHONGJIUDUICHENGRENJIAOYUDERENWU、TIZHIDENGZUOCHULEMINGQUEGUIDING,WEIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEHOUXUFAZHANDIANDINGLEJICHU。1976NIAN,MEIGUOGUOHUITONGGUOLE《ZHONGSHENXUEXIFA》(YOUMING《MENGDAIERFA》),ZHENDUIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDETEDIANQUEDINGLEZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEFALVDIWEI,BAZHONGSHENJIAOYUQUANRENDINGWEIMEIGUOGONGMINDEJIBENQUANLI,BINGYIFALVXINGSHIGULIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDUOYANGHUAHEBENTUHUA。ZHEISHIMUQIANSHIJIEFANWEINEIGONGRENDEDIYIBUJUYOUJIAOWEIWANBEINEIRONGDEZHONGSHENJIAOYUCHENGWENFA。

CIWAI,MEIGUOHAIBANBULEYUZHONGSHENJIAOYUXIXIXIANGGUANDEQITAFALVFAGUI,RU《SHIMAOYUCHUKOUCUJINFAAN》(1987NIAN)YAOQIUQIYEANZHAOGUIDINGKAIZHANZHIYUANPEIXUN,TIGAOQIYEDEGUOJIJINGZHENGLI;《MEIGUOLAONIANRENFA》(1973)YAOQIUGELAONIANRENGUANLIJIGOUBA“JIAOYU”YIWUNARUQIZHIZEFANWEI[3];《ZHENGFUYEJIYUCHENGGUOFA》(1993NIAN)JIANGZHENGFUWEIZHONGSHENXUEXIZHIDINGDEFAZHANJIPINGGUFANGANNARUZHENGFUYEJIKAOHE。

三分飞艇HANGUOFEICHANGZHONGSHIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEFAZHAN,CHULEZHIDINGRENLIZIYUANKAIFALEIFALVFAGUI、YUANCHENGJIAOYULEIFALVFAGUIWAI,HAIZHIDINGLEZHUANMENDEZHONGSHENJIAOYULEIFALVFAGUI,MINGQUELEZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEFALVDIWEI、MUBIAOHEFAZHANLUJINGDENG。ZAILIANHEGUOPUJIZHONGSHENJIAOYUZHIQIAN,1961NIANHANGUOJIUBANBUSHISHILE《FEICHANGGUIJIAOYUCUJINFA》,GUIDINGLEFEICHANGGUIJIAOYUDEFAZHANFANGXIANG、CHANGGUIJIAOYUYUFEICHANGGUIJIAOYUZHIJIANDEGUANXI、FEICHANGGUIJIAOYUDEZUZHIGUANLIHUODONGDENG,KEWEIZOUZAISHIJIEDEQIANLIE。SHANGSHIJI90NIANDAI,HANGUOLUXUBANBULE《TONGGUOZIXUEHUODEXUEWEICHENGRENFAAN》(1990)HE《XUEFENYINXINGZHIDU》(1997)。ZAIYISHANGFALVFAGUIDEJICHUSHANG,HANGUOZAI21SHIJIDAOLAIZHIQIAN(1999)BANBUSHISHILE《ZHONGSHENJIAOYUFA》,BINGYU2008NIANBANBULE《ZHONGSHENJIAOYUFASHISHIXIZE》。GAIFAGUIDINGQUANTIGUOMINJUNNENGXIANGYOUJIESHOUZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEQUANLI,ZHILIYUMANZUGONGMINZHONGSHENXUEXIDEXUQIU,ERZUIZHONGMUDEZAIYUJIANLIYIGEKAIFANGDE、YANXUDEXUEXIXINGSHEHUI,TIXIANLEJIAOWEIXIANJINDELIFALINIANHESIXIANG。

三分飞艇WEIBAOZHANGLIFAMUDEYULINIANDEGUANCHEYUSHISHI,HANGUO《ZHONGSHENJIAOYUFA》ZHIDINGLEYIXILIEXIANGYINGDEZHIDUYUCUOSHI。BIRUZAI“XUEXIFEIYONGYUANZHUZHIDU”HE“XUEXIXIUJIAZHIDU”DENGTIAOKUANZHONGGUIDING:QIYEYUANGONGCANYUZAIXUEXIHUOPEIXUN,XIANGYOUDAIXINHUOZHEBUDAIXINDEXIUJIADAIYU;ZHENGFUHUOQIYEYOUYIWUZIZHUJINGJISHENGHUOKUNNANDEGONGMINCANJIAZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEXUEXIHUODONG。HANGUO《ZHONGSHENJIAOYUFA》QUEDINGLEGUOJIAJIDIFANGZIZHITUANTIZAIZHONGSHENJIAOYUZHONGDERENWU,DUIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDESHISHIJINXINGLEXIANGXIGUIDING。SUIHOU,HANGUOXIANQILEQUANGUOFANWEINEIDEZHONGSHENJIAOYU、ZHONGSHENXUEXIDERECHAO,FENBIEYU1999NIANHE2007NIANZHIDINGSHISHILE“GUOJIAZHONGSHENXUEXICUJINLIUNIANJIHUA”,QUEDINGLEZHONGSHENJIAOYUZAITIGAOGUOJIAJINGZHENGLIZHONGDEZUOYONGHEDIWEI[4]。

三分飞艇RIBENSHISHIJIESHANGLVXIANSHIJIANZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEGUOJIAZHIYI,JIAOYUJIEYIZHIBAJIANLIZHONGSHENXUEXITIXIZUOWEIMUBIAO。RIBENSHISHIJIESHANGDIYIGEWEIZHONGSHENJIAOYUZHIDINGZHUANMENFALVDEGUOJIA。1990NIAN,RIBENJIEHEGUONEIJIAOYUXIANZHUANG,BANBU《ZHONGSHENXUEXIZHENXINGFA》,JIANGZHONGSHENJIAOYUNARUQUANMINJIAOYUTIXI,TICHULEZHONGSHENJIAOYUFAZHANDEZONGTIGOUXIANG,GUIDINGLEZHONGYANGHEDIFANGZHENGFUZAIZHONGSHENJIAOYUFAZHANZHONGDEZHINENG,TONGSHI“JIYUDIFANGZHENGFUZUGOUDEQUANXIAN”,YIDIAODONGDIFANGZHENGFUZAIZHONGSHENJIAOYUFAZHANZHONGDEJIJIXING[5]。

2002NIAN,RIBENGUOHUIDUI《ZHONGSHENXUEXIZHENXINGFA》JINXINGLEXIUDING,CHUTAILE《ZHONGSHENXUEXIWANSHANFA》。《ZHONGSHENXUEXIWANSHANFA》DUIZHONGSHENJIAOYUBINGWUSHIZHIDEDAOXIANGXINGXIUGAI,ZHIDUIBUFENNEIRONGHEXIZEJINXINGLEXIUDING。

CHULEZHEILIANGBUZHONGSHENJIAOYUZHUANMENFAZHIWAI,RIBENYEZHIDINGLEQITAXIANGGUANFALVFAGUI,RU《QINGNIANXUEJIZHENXINGFA》、《TIYUYUNDONGZHENXINGFA》DENG,WEIRIBENZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEKAIZHANDIANDINGLEFALVJICHU。YOUQISHISHANGSHIJI90NIANDAIYILAI,RIBENGEJIZHENGFUZAIFALVBAOZHANGXIAZAIQUANGUOTUIGUANGZHONGSHENJIAOYU、ZHONGSHENXUEXI,JIANGJIAOYUZHONGXINCONGXUELIJIAOYUXIANGQUANMINZHONGSHENJIAOYUZHUANBIAN。

三分飞艇(ER)TONGCHANGSHUNDADESHEHUIBAOZHANGJIZHI

ZHONGSHENJIAOYUDESHISHIFAZHANXUYAOGUOJIAJIAOYUBUDETONGYIBUSHU,YEXUYAODIFANGGEJIZHENGFU、BUMENDETONGLIHEZUO,ZAIZHONGSHENJIAOYUFAZHANGUIHUAZHONG,GEGEGUOJIADOUCAIYONGLEZONGTIKUANGJIAGUIHUAYUFENJIGUANLIDESHISHICELVE,GULIDIFANGZHENGFU、MINJIANJIAOYUJIGOUHEXUESHUJIEGONGTONGCANYU,BAOZHANGZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEGUIFANXINGHESHUNLITUIJIN。

HANGUOJIANLILEYIJIAOYUBUWEIZHUTIDEJIAOYUZHUGUANJIGOU,LUXUDAORUYIXILIEDEXUEXIZHIYUANZHIDU,BINGJINYIBUQIANGHUAGUOJIAHEDIFANGZIZHITUANTIDUIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEZHIYUANTIXI[6],JIANLILEZHONGSHENJIAOYUSANJIGUANLIJIGOU,YIJIJIGOUWEIJIAOYUBUXIASHEDE“ZHONGSHENXUEXICUJINWEIYUANHUI”,FUZEZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEZHENGTIGUIHUA、ZHONGSHENJIAOYUSHISHIQINGKUANGDIAOCHAYANJIU、KAIFAZHONGSHENJIAOYUKECHENGDENG;ERJIJIGOUWEIDIFANGZHENGFUSHEZHIDE“ZHONGSHENXUEXILISHIHUI”,FUZEXIEDIAODIFANGZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEKAIZHAN,JIAQIANGDIFANGYUZHONGYANGDELIANXI,WEIZHONGSHENJIAOYUTIGONGXINXIHEZIXUN,YUNXINGZHONGSHENXUEXICUJINWEIYUANHUIKAIFADEXIANGGUANKECHENGDENG;SANJIGUANLIJIGOUWEISHIJIYIXIADIFANGZHENGFUDE“ZHONGSHENXUEXILISHIHUI”,FUZEJUTISHISHIZHONGSHENJIAOYU,WEIMEIGEJIESHOUZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEXUESHENGTIGONGKECHENG。ZHEISANGEGUANLIJIGOUFENBIESHEZHIXIANGYINGDEZHUANJIATUANDUI,CONGERBAOZHENGZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEGUANCHESHISHI。

三分飞艇RIBENDEZHONGSHENJIAOYUGUANLITIXIGENGJIAWANSHAN,ZAIZHONGYANGJIJIGOUWENBUKEXUESHENGXIASHELEZHONGSHENJIAOYUJU,JIANLILECONGZHONGYANGDAODIFANG、CONGJIAOYUJIGOUDAOQIYEZUZHIDEQUANFANGWEILITIHUADEZHONGSHENJIAOYUGUANLIJISHISHITIXI。ZAIZHENGFUZHUDAODEXUEXIAOJIAOYUJICHUSHANG,RIBENYAOQIUQIYEKAIZHANQIYENEIJIAOYU,GONGLIBAOJIANSUOKAIZHANJIANKANGJIAOYU,NONGLINSHUICHANBUMENZHIDAOKAIZHANNONGYEJIAOYUDENG。YINCIRIBENZAIQUANMINZHONGSHENJIAOYUTIXIDEJIANGOUFANGMIANZOUDEGENGYUAN,CHULEJINENGJIAOYU、WENHUAJIAOYUZHIWAI,HAIZHUZHONGAIGUOAIGONGSIJIAOYU、TIYUJIAOYU、YULEJIAOYU、YIWUJIAOYUDENG,RUZHENDUIRIBENJIATINGFUNVKAIZHANDECHAHUAKECHENGDENG。YOUWEITUCHUDESHIRIBENQIYEWEIMEIGEYUANGONGGENJUQITEDIANTIGONGGUANLIJIAOYU、JINENGPEIXUNDENG,MEINIANMEIGEQIYEZAIYUANGONGZHONGSHENJIAOYUFANGMIANDEKAIZHIYUEWEI30WANRIYUAN,MEINIANQUANGUOQIYENEIJIAOYUJINGFEIYUE60ZHAORIYUAN[7]。

三分飞艇(SAN)RENXINGHUADESHISHIZHIDU

三分飞艇ZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEGUANCHESHISHIDUIYUBAOZHANGMEIGERENDESHOUJIAOYUQUANZHIGUANZHONGYAO,ZAIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEJUTISHISHIGUOCHENGZHONG,FADAGUOJIATIGONGXINGSHIDUOYUANDEJIAOYULEIXINGGONGSHOUJIAOYUZHEXUANZE,HAIWEISHOUJIAOYUZHETIGONGJIAOYUJINGFEIBAOZHANG、XUEFENZHUANHUANDENGRENXINGHUADEJIAOYUXUANZE,WEIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEQUANMIANSHENRUTUIXINGTIGONGBAOZHANG。

三分飞艇YIHANGUOWEILI,SHOUJIAOYUZHEKEYIGENJUZISHENTEDIANJIXUEXIXUQIU,XUANZEZHUANMENDEZHONGSHENJIAOYUXUEXIAOHUOZHEPUTONGXUEXIAO,YEKEYIXUANZEYUANCHENGJIAOYUXUEXIAOJIESHOUZHONGSHENJIAOYU。ZAIXUANZEKECHENGSHI,KEYIXUANZEYIBANDEDUXIE、YUYANDENGKECHENGTIGAOWENHUASHUIPING,YEKEYIXUANZEQICHEWEIXIU、MEIRONGDENGKECHENGTISHENGJINENG,HAIKEYIXUANZEYINLE、XIJUDENGYISHULEIKECHENGTAOYEQINGCAO,KEYIXUANZEGAOERFU、KANGFUYUNDONGDENGKECHENGZENGQIANGTIZHI,XUANZEHULI、JINJIJIUZHUDENGKECHENGTIGAOTUFASHIGUCHULINENGLI。ZAISHOUKEFANGSHIZHONG,KEYIXUANZEDAOXUEXIAOYUQITAXUEXIZHEYIQIJIESHOUJIAOYU,HUXIANGJIAOLIU,YEKEYIXUANZEZIJIZAIJIATONGGUOXIANDAIHUAJISHUZHICHIDEYUANCHENGJIAOYUFANGSHIJIESHOUJIAOYU,YUQITAXUEXIZHETONGGUOWANGLUOPINGTAIJINXINGGOUTONGJIAOLIU。HANGUOHAIJIANLILE“XUEFENYINXING”ZHIDU,HANGAILEDAXUE、QIYEPEIXUNJIGOU、ZHENGFUJIGUAN、PEIXUNXUEYUANDENGBUTONGXINGSHIDEJIAOYUJIGOU[8]。HANGUO《ZHONGSHENJIAOYUFA》TUPOLEXUELIJIAOYUYUFEIXUELIJIAOYUZHIJIANDEBILEI,CHUANGLILEXUEFENYUXUELIHUHUANJIRENZHENG“LIJIAOQIAO”ZHIDU,GUIDINGLEDUINEIXIEWANCHENGGUIDINGKECHENGDEZHONGSHENJIAOYUXUEXIZHE,GUOJIACHENGRENQIXUEFENHEXUELI,WEIXIAOWAIZHONGSHENXUEXIZHEDEXUEXICHENGGUOHUODEGUOJIARENKETIGONGLEFALVBAOZHANG。GAIFAHAIDUIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEBANXUEXINGTAIJINXINGLEGUIDING,GUIDINGZHONGSHENJIAOYUYIXUEXIAOXINGTAI、YUANCHENGJIAOYUXINGTAIYIJISHEQUDAXUEXINGTAIDENGDUOZHONGXINGTAIJINXING,SHIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEQUDAOHETUJINGDEYIJIDATUOZHAN。

WEILECUJINZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEDAFAZHAN,GEGEGUOJIABUJINLIFAZHICHIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDESHISHI,HAIZAIJINGFEIFANGMIANYUYIGUIDING,TIGONGCAIZHENGZHICHI,YOUQIWEIRUOSHIQUNTIXIANGSHOUZHONGSHENJIAOYUTIGONGJINGJIBAOZHANG。RUMEIGUOCAIZHENGMEINIANWEINONGYETUIGUANGPEIXUN、QIYEPEIXUN、CHENGRENJIAOYUPEIXUNDENGTIGONGZHUANMENDEJINGFEIZHICHI,SHEZHILEDUOZHONGJIANGXUEJIN,FAFANGJICHENGRENRUOSHIQUNTI,WEISUOYOUSHOUJIAOYUZHETIGONGJIAOYUXINYONGDAIKUAN,JIANQINGTAMENDEJINGJIFUDAN。TONGSHIMEIGUOHAIZHIDINGLEZHENDUITESHUQUNTIDEJIAOYUJIHUA,WEIBUTONGRENQUNTIGONGBUTONGDEZHICHIHEFUWU[9]。

三分飞艇WEILERANGSHOUJIAOYUZHEYOUGENGDUODEXUANZE,TONGSHIJIEYUEJIAOYUZIYUAN,TIGAOXUEXIZHEDEXUEXIJIJIXING,OUZHOUGUOJIAZAIQUYUXINGXUEFENHURENFANGMIANYIJINGYOUSUOJINZHAN,GUOJIANEIBUGEGEXUEXIAODEXUEFENHURENYIJINGJIBENSHIXIAN。XINXILANZAIZHONGSHENJIAOYUFANGMIANJIUCAIQULEXUEFENZHUANHUANHEXIANQIANXUEFENRENKEJIZHI。XINXILANZHONGSHENJIAOYUCAIYONGZIGEKUANGJIATIXI,JIANLILEBAOHANZHONGDENGJIAOYUWENPINGZHENGSHU、XUEWEIZHENGSHU(XUESHI、SHUOSHI、BOSHI)HEQITAGEJIZIGEZHENGSHUWENPINGDE10JIZIGEKUANGJIATIXI。DUIXIANQIANDEWENPINGZHENGSHUHEGONGZUO、PEIXUNJINGLI、PEIXUNCHENGJIDOUYUYIRENDING,BINGZHESUANWEIXUEFEN,WUXUZHONGFUXUEXITONGYIKECHENG,ZHEIYANGJIUZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGTIGAOLEXUEXIZHEXUEXIDELINGHUOXINGHESHIYINGXING[10]。HANGUOZAI《ZHONGSHENJIAOYUFA》ZHONGJIUDUIXUEFENJILEI、XUEFENZHUANHUANYUYILIFABAOHU,RUWANCHENGMOUKECHENGXUEXIBINGHUODEXUEFENJIKEZAIQUANGUOFANWEINEIHUODERENKE,BINGKEYIZAIHOUXUXUEXIZHONGJINXINGXUEFENZHUANHUAN。

SAN、WOGUOZHONGSHENJIAOYUBAOZHANGDEFAZHANLICHENGHEXIANSHIKUNJING

ZHONGGUOGUXUNJIUYOU“HUODAOLAO,XUEDAOLAO”ZHEIYANGTIXIANZHONGSHENJIAOYUYUZHONGSHENXUEXILINIANDECHUANCHENG,DANSHIXIANDAIZHONGSHENJIAOYULINIANYINJINGUONEIJIAOWAN,GAIGEKAIFANGHOUCAIKAISHISHOUDAOZHONGSHI。WOGUOZHONGSHENJIAOYUYANJIUXUEZHEBAGAIGEKAIFANGYILAIDEGUONEIZHONGSHENJIAOYUFAZHANFENWEISANGEJIEDUAN:CHUSHIJIEDUAN(1979-1993NIAN)、TUIJINJIEDUAN(1994-1999NIAN)HETUOZHANJIEDUAN(2000NIANZHIJIN)[11]。

GAIGEKAIFANGDAILAIGUONEIZHENGZHIJINGJIXINGSHIDEZHUBUHAOZHUAN,DUIWAIJIAOLIURIYIZENGDUO,GUOWAIXIANJINDEJIAOYULINIANZHUJIANBEIGUONEIJIAOYUJIEJIESHOUBINGJIEJIAN。ZAIGUANZHUCHUANTONGXUEXIAOJIAOYUDETONGSHI,JIAOYUJIEYEBAMUGUANGTOUXIANGLEKEWAIJIAOYUHEYEYUJIAOYU。ZHANGRENJIEZHUANXIEDE《ZHONGSHENJIAOYU:YIGEZHIDEGUANZHUDESICHAO》BEIRENWEISHIGUONEIZHONGSHENJIAOYULINIANYINJINDEDIYIPIANLUNWEN,BIAOZHIZHEZHONGSHENJIAOYUZAIZHONGGUODEYANJIUQIBU[12]。ZHONGSHENJIAOYUCHUSHIJIEDUANDEZHUYAOTEZHENGWEILAONIANDAXUEZAIQUANGUODEXINGQIYIJIQUANGUOSAOMANGJIAOYUDEKAIZHAN。SAOMANGYUNDONGSHIZHONGGUOZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEYIDALIANGDIAN,1945NIANQUANGUOCHENGRENWENMANGLVGAODA80%,1990NIANQUANGUODISICIRENKOUPUCHASHUJUXIANSHI,CHENGRENWENMANGLVXIAJIANGDAO22%。1993NIANGUOWUYUANYINFADE《ZHONGGUOGAODENGJIAOYUGAIGEHEFAZHANGANGYAO》TIJI“ZHONGSHENJIAOYU”,ZHEISHIGUONEISHOUCIZAIJIAOYUZHENGCEZHONGSHEJIZHONGSHENJIAOYUGAINIAN,BIAOZHIZHEZHONGSHENJIAOYULINIANZHUANBIANWEIZHENGCESHIJIAN。ZHONGSHENJIAOYUTUIJINJIEDUANDEZHUYAOTEZHENGKEYIGAIKUOWEIZHONGSHENJIAOYUTIXIHEYUANCHENGJIAOYUDETICHU。

三分飞艇1995NIAN,《ZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOJIAOYUFA》SHOUCITICHU“ZHONGSHENJIAOYUTIXI”GAINIAN,BINGBAJIANSHEZHONGSHENJIAOYUTIXISHANGSHENGDAOJIBENGUOCEDEDIWEI。1999NIAN,GUOWUYUANCHANGDAOQUANMINSUZHIJIAOYU,QIANGDIAOYUANCHENGJIAOYUWANGLUOZAIQUANMINZHONGSHENXUEXIZHONGDEZUOYONG,WEIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDETUIJINCHUIXIANGHAOJIAO。

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三分飞艇ZHONGSHENJIAOYUZAIGUONEIDEFAZHANHAIYOUHENDADEKONGJIAN,DANSHIMUQIANYECUNZAIZHUDUOWENTI。DANGQIANLINGGEJIZHENGFUHEXUEJIEBEIGANKUNHUODESHI,CHANGDAOJIANLIZHONGSHENJIAOYUTIXIJINGUANYIYOUJISHINIAN,DANRENGRANTINGLIUZAIKOUTOUTUIXING、WENJIANPIZHUANDECENGMIAN。ZHONGSHENJIAOYUTIXIDEGOUJIANJIXUZHENGCEYULIFAJIZHILAIZHICHENG。GEZHONGJIAOYUJIGOUZHIJIANYIRANPUBIANCUNZAIHENGXIANGGELIEDEZHUANGTAI,JIXUJIANLIYIGETUIDONGZHONGSHENJIAOYUFAZHANDEGUOJIACENGMIANDEZHIDAOGUANLIJIGOULAIYOUXIAOZHENGHEGEZHONGJIAOYUZIYUAN。

YOUYUQUEFADINGCENGZHENGCEDEKUANGJIASHEJI,QUEFAXIAOWAIJIAOYULILUNYANJIU,XIAOWAIJIAOYUPUBIANMIANLINZHELAIZITIZHI、JIZHIDENGFANGMIANDEFAZHANKUNJING。YOUYUSHEHUIXINGSHIDEJIJUBIANHUA,YIXIEZAIXIANGDANGZHANGSHIQINEICENGJINGSHIFENCHANGSHENGDEJIAOYUXINGTAI,YEYIMIANLIN“NANYIWEIJI”DEWEIJI。JIUCHENGRENJIAOYUERYAN,SHANGSHIJI80NIANDAI,WEISHIYING“GAIGEKAIFANG”XINXINGSHIDEXUYAO,WEILEDUIZOUSHANGGONGZUOGANGWEIDECHENGNIANRENJINXINGGANGWEIPEIXUN、XUELIJIAOYU、BUCHANGJIAOYU,CHENGRENJIAOYUZAIWOGUOXINGQIBINGZHUJIANFAZHANQILAI,CENGBEILIEWEIGUOMINJIAOYUTIXISIDAZUCHENGBUFENZHIYI。JINRU21SHIJIYIHOU,SUIZHEGAODENGJIAOYUDAZHONGHUADESHIXIAN,CHENGRENJIAOYUKAISHICHUXIANFAZHANPINGJING,XUDUOCHENGRENJIAOYUJIGOUMIANLINSHENGCUNWEIJI。ZAISHEQUJIAOYUFANGMIANYEYOULEISIQINGKUANG。JINGGUO30NIANDETUIDONGYUFAZHAN,SHEQUJIAOYUZAICUJINSHEHUIFAZHANJINBUHEWEIHUDIQUWENDINGDENGFANGMIANFAHUILEZHONGYAODEZUOYONG,CUJINLECHENGXIANGJUMINZHONGSHENXUEXI,TIGAOLECHENGXIANGJUMINJINGSHENWENMINGSHUIPING。RANER,SHEQUJIAOYUZHIJINRENGRANYOULIZAIGUOMINJIAOYUTIXIXULIEZHIWAI,SHEQUJIAOYUDEZHUANYEGONGZUOZHEDUIWUCHUYUZHONGZHONGKUNJINGZHIZHONG:YIWUPEIYANGTUJING,ERWUZHICHENGXILIE,SANWUGANGWEIBIANZHI。RUGUOZHEIZHONGZHUANGKUANGFAZHANXIAQU,DANGXIASHIFENXINGSHENGDESHEQUJIAOYUNANMIANHUIXIANRUDIAOLINGWEISUODEJINGDI。

三分飞艇FAZHANZHONGSHENJIAOYU,BIXUSHOUXIANYOUXIAOTONGHEXUEXIAONEIWAIDEJIAOYUZIYUAN,JIAQILIANJIELIANGZHEZHIJIANDE“LIJIAOQIAO”。DANSHI,YOUYUGEZHONGLISHIDE、XINGZHENGZUZHIGUISHUDE,NAIZHILIYIGUANXIBOYIDEYUANYIN,SHISHISHANGXINGCHENGLEZONGXIANGGELIE、HENGXIANGZUDUANDETIZHIJIZHI。BIXUTONGGUODINGCENGSHEJI,LIANJIEGUANTONGGEZHONGYUANBENHUBUGUANLIAN、HUBURONGHEDEJIAOYUZIYUAN,JINXINGXIEDIAOYUTONGHE,CAINENGSHIZHIDEDAOYOUXIAOLIYONG。MUQIAN,ZHEIZHONGJIAOYUBILEIYUZUGESHIPUBIANCUNZAIDE,BAOKUOGEZHONG“TIZHINEI”YU“TIZHIWAI”、“ZHENGGUI”YU“FEIZHENGGUI”ZHIJIANDERONGHEZHANGAIWENTI。ERDUIYUNEIXIESHENCHU“TIZHIWAI”DEFEIZHENGGUIJIAOYU,WANGWANGHUIYINWEIGEZIDEGUISHU、XINGZHENGGUANXIADEJIGOUBUTONG,ERMIANLINZHENANYIYOUXIAOZHENGHEDEKUNJING。

三分飞艇SI、WOGUOZHONGSHENJIAOYUFAZHANDECELVEXUANZE

三分飞艇《GUOJIAZHONGZHANGQIJIAOYUGAIGEHEFAZHANGUIHUAGANGYAO(2010-2020NIAN)》TICHU,DAO2020NIANYAOSHIXIAN“JIBENXINGCHENGXUEXIXINGSHEHUI”DEJIAOYUMUBIAO,DANGDESHIBADAQUEDING“WANSHANZHONGSHENJIAOYUTIXI,JIANSHEXUEXIXINGSHEHUI”DEZHONGDAZHANLVE,ZHONGSHENJIAOYUJIANGMIANLINGENGDADEFAZHANKONGJIANHEGENGHAODEFAZHANJIYU。JINJISHINIANLAI,GUONEIZHONGSHENJIAOYUFAZHANXUNSU,CHENGJIFEIRAN,WEIJIANSHEXUEXIXINGSHEHUIDIANDINGLEJIANSHIDEJICHU。JIEJIANGUOWAIZHONGSHENJIAOYUYOUXIUJINGYAN,ZHIDINGGUOJIAZHONGSHENJIAOYUZHUANMENFALV,JIANGWEIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEJINYIBUPUJITIGONGBAOZHANG,YEYOUZHUYUTIGAOQUANMINZHONGSHENJIAOYUYISHI。ZAIZHONGSHENJIAOYUSHISHIGUOCHENGZHONG,YINGGAIJIAQIANGZHONGYANGYUDIFANGDELIANXI,CUJINQUYUXINGHEZUO,ZHUBUJIANSHEQUYUXING、QUANGUOXING、GUOJIXUEFENZHUANHUANTIXI,TIGONGXUEXIBIANLI,TIGAOXUEXIZHEDECANYUREQING。TONGSHIGUANZHURUOSHIQUNTIDEZHONGSHENJIAOYUXUANZEHEJIESHOUJIAOYUDEJINGFEIBAOZHANG,LIZHENGSHIXIANQUANMINCANYU、QUANMIANTIGAODEZHONGSHENJIAOYUHONGWEIMUBIAO,JIANSHEXUEXIXINGSHEHUI。

三分飞艇(YI)GUOJIAZHIDINGZHONGSHENJIAOYUFA,TIGAORENMENDEZHONGSHENJIAOYUYISHI

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(ER)ZHENGHEDUOZHONGJIAOYUZIYUAN,GOUZHUDUOYUANZHONGSHENJIAOYUTIXI

GOUJIANZHONGSHENJIAOYUTIXI,JIANSHEXUEXIXINGSHEHUISHIYIXIANGJIDINGGUOCE,YESHIYIXIANGHONGDADESHEHUIGONGCHENG。JIANLIZHONGSHENJIAOYUTIXIBIXUZHENGHEGEZHONGJIAOYUZIYUAN,TONGGUOJIAOYUGAIGE,SHIXUEXIAOJIAOYUYUQITAGEZHONGLEIXINGDEXUEXIHUODONGMIQIEHEZUO,SHIXIANJIAOYUZIYUANWEISHEHUIGONGMINGONGXIANG。MEIGUOGONGLIXUEXIAOJIAOYUZIYUANGONGGONGXINGDETEDIANFEICHANGMINGXIAN,MEIGUOGAODENGJIAOYUZAITUIJINZHONGSHENJIAOYUFAZHANZHONGFAHUILEZISHENDEZUOYONG,CAIYONGLEDUOZHONGFANGSHIXIANGCHENGRENSHIJIEKAIFANG。MEIGUOZAI20SHIJI60NIANDAIYEYUZHIXUESHENGBIANYIDADAO48%,DAXUECHULEXIANGCHENGRENTIGONGXUEFENKECHENGHEXUEWEI(DUIZIXUE、HANSHOU、GUANGBODIANSHIKECHENGYIJIDUANQIZHUSUYANXIBANSHOUYUXUEFEN)YIWAI,HAITIGONGDUANQIKECHENG、JISHUZIXUNFUWUHEFEIZHENGGUIKECHENG。

GUOWAIXUEFENZHUANHUANJIZHISHIXUEXIZHEJIESHOUZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEXINGSHIGENGWEILINGHUO,YEGENGJIARENXINGHUA。MEIGUO、HANGUO、OUZHOUGUOJIADEXUEFENZHUANHUANZHIDUWEIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDESHUNLITUIGUANGHETUOZHANTIGONGLEBIANLI。RIBENDADUOSHUDAXUESHIXINGDAXUEKAIFANGZHIDU。DAXUEMIANXIANGSHEHUIZHAOSHOUCHENGRENXUESHENG,KAISHEHANSHOUDAXUE、YEJIANBU,DINGQIJUXINGYIXIEGONGKAIJIANGZUO。HENDUODAXUECAIYONGLVXIUSHENGZHIDU,XINAFEIZHENGGUIXUESHENGPANGTINGXUEXIAOZHENGGUIKECHENG,XUESHENGSUOXIUDEDEXUEFENKEHUOSHEHUICHENGREN。SHANGHAISHIJIAOYUKEXUEYANJIUYUANZHICHENGJIAOYANJIUSUOYANGLIMINGYU2005NIANZAIGUONEISHOUTUI“XUEFENYINXING”GOUXIANG[13]。2013NIAN,SHANGHAISHIKAISHISHIXINGQUANSHIFANWEINEIDE“XUEFENYINXING”XITONG,BAZHONGSHENJIAOYUFENWEIXUELIJIAOYU、ZHIYEPEIXUNHEWENHUAXIUXIANJIAOYUSANLEI,MEIMENKECHENGYOUDUIYINGDEXUEFENZHI,XUEXIZHEKEYITONGGUOSHENQINGJIANLIZIJIDEZHUANYOUZHANGHU,TONGGUOXUANXIUKECHENGLAIJILEIXUEFEN,YEKEYIJIANGBUTONGDEXUEXIJINGLIJINXINGZHUANHUAN、RENDING,DANSHIZHIYEPEIXUNHEWENHUAXIUXIANJIAOYUXUEFENBUNENGZHUANHUANWEIXUELIJIAOYUXUEFEN。XUEXIZHEYEKEYIBAYIJINGQUDEDEXUELIJIAOYUCHENGJIHEZHIYEZIGEZHENGSHUDENGCUNRUXUEFENYINXING,ZAIXUANZEJIXUXUEXIDEJIAOYUJIGOUHOU,KEYIYONGLEIJIDEXUEXICHENGGUODAOJIAOYUJIGOUSHENQINGXUEFENZHUANHUAN。CANJIAXUEFENZHUANHUANDEXUELIJIAOYULEIKECHENGYOU609XIANG,ZHIYEPEIXUNZHENGSHUKECHENG379XIANG,WENHUAXIUXIANJIAOYULEIKECHENG3796XIANG。ZHEISHIGUONEISHOUGEDIQUXINGXUEFENYINXING。

SUIZHESHEHUIDEJINBU,RENKOULIUDONGJIASU,YIQUYUXINGHEZUOWEIJICHU,JIANSHEDIQUXING、QUANGUOFANWEIDEXUEFENYINXING,SHENZHIKEYICHANGSHIYUZHOUBIANGUOJIA、JIAOYUHEZUOGUOJIALIANHEJIANGOUXUEFENYINXING,JIANGGENGNENGFENGFUXUEXIZHEDEXUEXIXUANZE,YOULIYUZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEJINYIBUTUOZHAN。DANSHI,ZAIXUEFENYINXINGJIANSHEGUOCHENGZHONGYINGGAIZHUYIYIXIALIANGFANGMIANDEWENTI:SHOUXIANSHIKECHENGBIAOZHUNDETONGYIRENDINGWENTI,KECHENGBIAOZHUNRUGUOBUTONGYI,XUEFENYINXINGJIANGCHUXIANQUYUXINGBUDUIDENG,HUIJIXUEXIZHEZAOCHENGXUEXIDEBUPINGDENGHEXUEXIZHANGAI;QICISHIXUEFENCUNRUYUZHUANHUANSHIDEBIAOZHUNRENDINGWENTI,BUTONGDEZHENGSHUSHIFOUKEYIRENDINGXUEFEN,RENDINGDUOSHAOXUEFENDOUYINGGAIYOUTONGYIDEBIAOZHUN,DUIRENDINGHUOZHUANHUANDEZHENGSHUZHENWEIJINXINGZHENBIE,JIANLIXUEFENYINXINGXINYONGXITONG,DUIZAIXUEFENJILEIHEZHUANHUANGUOCHENGZHONGNONGXUZUOJIADEXUEXIZHEYUYIXUEFENDONGJIEDECHENGFA,YIBAOZHENGXUEFENYINXINGDESHUNLIYUNXING。

三分飞艇(SAN)KUODAZHONGSHENJIAOYUFUGAIMIAN,SHIXIANQUANMINQUANMIANZHONGSHENJIAOYU

三分飞艇FAZHANZHONGSHENJIAOYU,BIXUSHULI“RENRENKEXUE、SHISHIYOUXUE、CHUCHUNENGXUE”DELINIAN。ZHONGSHENJIAOYUSHIMEIGERENDOUYIFAXIANGYOUJIESHOUJIAOYUDEQUANLI,BIXUYONGFALVYUYANLAIBAOZHANGRUOSHIQUNTIDEQUANLI,RANGZHONGSHENJIAOYUHUIJIMEIGEJUYOUZIZHUJIAOYUFAZHANYISHIDEGETI。ZAIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDESHISHIGUOCHENGZHONGYINGGAIKAOLVDAORUOSHIQUNTIZAIJIESHOUZHONGSHENJIAOYUZHONGMIANLINDESHIJIKUNNAN,WEIQITIGONGZHENDUIXINGDEKECHENG,JIEJUEQIJIAOYUZHONGDEZIJINKUNNANDENGNANTI。SHOUXIAN,KEYIZHENDUIBUTONGXUEXIZHETIGONGJUYOUTESEDEKECHENG,RUZHENDUISHAOSHUMINZUKAIZHANMINZUXINGZHONGSHENJIAOYUKECHENG;ZHENDUINVXINGXUEXIZHEKAIZHANNVXINGJIANKANG、NVXINGZHIYEFAZHAN、NVXINGZHICHANGZIWOBAOHUDENGKECHENG;ZHENDUICANJIRENXUEXIZHEKAIZHANSHIHECANJIRENDEJINENGPEIXUN、CANJIRENJIANKANGBAOJIANDENGKECHENG。DIER,KEYIWEIQUEFAJINGFEIZHICHIDEXUEXIZHETIGONGJINGFEIYUANZHU,ZHENDUIKUNNANJIATINGSHIXINGXIANXUEXIHOUJIAOFEIDEZHENGCE,HUOZHEXIESHOUYINXINGWEIQITIGONGYOUHUIXINGJIAOYUDAIKUAN,SHENZHIDUIGEBIEJIATINGTEBIEKUNNANDEXUEXIZHEKEYIJIANMIANXUEFEI。DISAN,LIANHESHEHUILILIANGWEIZHONGSHENJIAOYUTIGONGJIANGXUEJIN,HUOZHEWEIRUOSHIQUNTIXUEXIZHETIGONGDUIKOUJIESHOUDANWEI,ZAIQIWANCHENGXIANGYINGXUEXI,QUDEXUEFENHOU,TUIJIANDAOXIANGGUANSHEHUIDANWEIGONGZUO,WEIQIJIEJUEQIESHENNANTI。

ZAIBAOZHENGRUOSHIQUNTINENGGOUXIANGSHOUZHONGSHENJIAOYUDETONGSHI,GUONEIZHONGSHENJIAOYUHAIYINGGAIWANSHANKECHENGGOUJIA,JIAQIANGGUOCHENGGUANLI。MUQIANGUONEIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDUINIANQINGXUEXIZHETIGONGDEKECHENGZHUYAOYIZHIYEJINENGPEIXUN、XUELIPEIXUNWEIZHU,QUEFAWENHUAJIANKANGLEIYOUZHUYUXUEXIZHEXIUSHENYANGXINGDEKECHENG,ZHEIYUXUEXIZHEDEXUEXIDONGJIBUWUGUANXI。DADUOSHUNIANQINGXUEXIZHEJIESHOUJIAOYUDEMUDEZHUYAOSHIWEILEPINGZHICHENGXUYAOHUOZHEDANCHUNDEWENPINGXUQIU,JUYOUGONGLIXINLI。GEBIEZHONGSHENJIAOYUJIGOUGUANLISONGXIE,XUEXIZHEDEXUEXIJINJINSHIZOUXINGSHI,NAWENPING,MOUZHONGCHENGDUSHANGNIUQULEZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEBENZHI。ZHENGFUXIANGGUANBUMENYINGGAIDALIXUANCHUAN,YOUQITIGAONIANQINGMINZHONGDUIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDERENSHI,TONGSHIDUIZHONGSHENJIAOYUDESHISHIJINXINGYANGEDEGUOCHENGGUANLI,BIMIANZHONGSHENJIAOYUCHENGWEIMOUXIETOUJIZHEKAOTOUJIQUQIAOLAITISHENGXUELICENGCIDETUJING,CONGERWEIHUZHONGSHENJIAOYUDEJIANKANGFAZHAN。

CANKAOWENXIAN:

[1]B.A.Yeaxlee.Lifelong Education[M].London:Cassell,1929:28.

[2]SUNZHAOLEI.MEIGUOZHONGSHENJIAOYUDETESE[J].CHENGRENJIAOYU,2010,(6):94-96.

三分飞艇[3]Kelly Young and Ed Rosenberg.Lifelong Learning in the United States and Japan[J].The LLl Review,2006:70.

[4]GEXIYAN.HANGUOZHONGSHENJIAOYUFAZHANTEDIANYUQUSHIYANJIU[J].ZHONGGUOCHENGRENJIAOYU,2011,(21):115-119.

三分飞艇[5]WUZUNMIN,HUANGJIAN.GUOWAIZHONGSHENJIAOYULIFAQISHI——JIYUMEI、RI、HANFAGUIWENBENDEFENXI[J].XIANDAIYUANCHENGJIAOYUYANJIU,2014,(1):27-32.

[6]LIZHIWEN,(HAN)LIXIUZHEN,SUNYU.HANGUOGAOXIAOZHONGSHENJIAOYUJIQIDUIZHONGGUODEQISHI[J].JIAOYUXUESHUYUEKAN,2014,(12):32-37.

三分飞艇[7]CUISHIGUANG.RIBENZHONGSHENJIAOYUDETEZHENGJIQISHI[J].MINZUJIAOYUYANJIU,2006,(4):66-73.

三分飞艇[8]POBEIXUAN(HAN).The Current Situations and Future Directions of the Korean Lifelong Education Policies[J].(HAN)XIXISHEHUIKEXUELUNCONG,2009,(1):261-285.

[9]the United States Department of Labor.Public Law 105-220[EB/OL].http://www.doleta.gov/usworkforce/wia/act.cfm.2011-7-25.

三分飞艇[10]JUHUIMIN,WANGWENJIN.XINXILANZIGEKUANGJIATIXISHUPING[J].ZHONGGUOZHIYEJISHUJIAOYU,2014,(6):68-72.

[11]WUZUNMIN,GUOHUINAN,ZHAOHUA.WOGUOZHONGSHENJIAOYUZHENGCEDEHUIGUYUFENXI[J].JIAOYUFAZHANYANJIU,2012,(17):53-58.

三分飞艇[12]ZHANGRENJIE.ZHONGSHENJIAOYU:YIGEZHIDEGUANZHUDESICHAO[A].YEYUJIAOYUDEZHIDUHECUOSHI[C].BEIJING:RENMINJIAOYUCHUBANSHE,1979.

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